The ovaries are a pair of glands that lie on either side of the uterus (womb). The ovaries make ova (eggs) and various hormones. Hormones are chemicals that are made in one part of the body, pass into the bloodstream, and have an effect on other parts of the body.

Ovulation normally occurs once a month when you release an ovum (egg) into a fallopian tube which leads into the uterus (womb). Before an ovum is released at ovulation, it develops within a little swelling of the ovary called a follicle (like a tiny cyst). Each month several follicles start to develop, but normally just one fully develops and goes on to ovulate.

1. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a health problem that can affect a woman’s:
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Ability to have children
  • Hormones
  • Heart
  • Blood vessels
  • Appearance

2. With PCOS, women typically have:
  • High levels of androgens. These are sometimes called male hormones, though females also make them.
  • Missed or irregular periods (monthly bleeding)
  • Many small cysts (fluid-filled sacs) in their ovaries

In anovulatory patients like those having PCOS and also before IUI medications/ injections are given to develop the mature follicle to adequate size and then trigger injection is given to rupture the same (induction of Ovulation). This is all monitored by serial ultrasounds. (Follicular monitoring)