In some individuals, spermatozoa may not be present in the ejaculate. This condition is called Azoospermia. This can be either due to problems in sperm production itself or due to obstruction to the flow of semen during ejaculation. Reproductive tract obstruction can be acquired – as a result of infection, trauma, an iatrogenic injury that can occur during bladder neck, pelvic, abdominal or inguinoscrotal surgery.

Congenital anomalies may be relatively uncommon in the general population but can occur in up to 2 percent of infertile men. The best-known condition is the congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) which occurs in almost all men with cystic fibrosis.

Two techniques – Epididymal sperm retrieval & micromanipulation have revolutionized the treatment of male infertility in the past decade. Men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas defenses (CBAVD) or reproductive tract obstruction are now able to achieve pregnancies with the use of these advanced techniques.

Microsurgical techniques for sperm retrieval taken up for obstructive as well as non- obstructive azoospermia.

To be coupled with ICSI.